Marcos Chronology report: Lest we forget

By Charlie Avila, via The Marcos Chronology Report.

September 1976

This month the Marcoses bought their first property in the U.S. – a condo in the exclusive Olympic Towers on Fifth Avenue in New York . Five months later they would also buy the three adjoining apartments, paying a total of $4,000,000.00 for the four and using Antonio Floirendo’s company, Theaventures Limited in Hong Kong , as front for these purchases.
October 13, 1977

Today, after addressing the UN General Assembly, Imelda celebrated by going shopping and spending $384,000 including $50,000 for a platinum bracelet with rubies; $50,000 for a diamond bracelet; and $58,000 for a pin set with diamonds.
The day before, Vilma Bautista, one of her private secretaries, paid $18,500 for a gold pendant with diamonds and emeralds; $9,450 for a gold ring with diamonds and emeralds; and $4,800 for a gold and diamond necklace.
October 27, 1977

The Marcoses donated $1.5 million to Tufts University in Boston , endowing a professorial chair in East Asian and Pacific Studies at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. The students and professors discovered this and forced the school to reject the donation. To save face, the Marcoses were allowed to finance several seminars and lectures.
November 2, 1977

Still at her shopping spree, Imelda paid $450,000 for a gold necklace and bracelet with emeralds, rubies, and diamonds; $300,000 for a gold ring with emeralds and diamonds; and $300,000 for a gold pendant with diamonds, rubies, and thirty-nine emeralds.


July 1978

After a trip to Russia , Imelda arrived in New York and immediately warmed up for a shopping spree. She started with paying $193,320 for antiques, including $12,000 for a Ming Period side table; $24,000 for a pair of Georgian mahogany Gainsborough armchairs; $6,240 for a Sheraton double-sided writing desk; $11,600 for a George II wood side table with marble top – all in the name of the Philippine consulate to dodge New York sales tax.
That was merely for starters.

A week later she spent $2,181,000.00 in one day! This included $1,150,000 for a platinum and emerald bracelet with diamonds from Bulgari; $330,000 for a necklace with a ruby, diamonds, and emeralds; $300,000 for a ring with heart-shaped emeralds; $78,000 for 18-carat gold ear clips with diamonds; $300,000 for a pendant with canary diamonds, rubies and emeralds on a gold chain.

After New York,
she dropped by Hong Kong where a Cartier representative admitted it was this Filipina, Imelda, who had put together the world’s largest collection of gems – in 1978.
May 1979

The Marcos couple celebrated their twenty-fifth wedding anniversary in a party that cost $5,000,000.00 There was a silver carriage drawn by eight white horses.
November 23, 1978

A house was purchased at 4 Capshire Drive in Cherry Hill , New Jersey(actually near to Philadelphia where Bongbong was taking courses at that time) for use by servants and Bongbong’s security detachment.
The Marcoses did not neglect their annual real estate purchase. During this year and next year, 1979, they purchased two properties – one at 3850 Princeton Pike, Princeton – a 13-acre estate for use by daughter Imee as she attended Princeton . The other was a house at 19 Pendleton Drive in Cherry Hill for use of Bongbong and under the name of Tristan Beplat, erstwhile head of the American Chamber of Commerce in the Philippines .
April 1979

In two days in New York this month, Imelda spent $280,000 for a necklace wet with emeralds and diamonds; $18,500 for a yellow gold evening bag with one round cut diamond; $8,975.20 for 20-carat gold ear clips with twenty-four baguette diamonds; $8,438.10 for 18-carat gold ear clips with fifty-two tapered baguette diamonds; and $12,056.50 for 20 carat gold ear clips with diamonds. June 1980
For $1,577,000.00 in New York Imelda buys Webster Hotel on West 45th Street . She rewards Gen. Romeo Gatan as a limited partner.. Gatan arrested Ninoy at the beginning of Martial Law.

The insurgents’ ranks grew by twenty percent a year.. Meritorious officers in the armed forces experienced low moral due to Marcos’ penchant for promoting friends over more deserving officers.
February 16, 1986
In Fe’s (Fe Roa Jimenez, private secretary of Imelda) records of monies paid out during Marcos’ last campaign, one unusually large item was authorized by “FL” (First Lady) and paid to Assemblyman Arturo Pacificador on this day. A few days later, two carloads of men drove into San Jose , the provincial capital of Antique. Evelio Javier, head of Aquino’s campaign, was watching the votes being counted when the men opened fire and killed Evelio after he was still able to run through town but finally got cornered in a public toilet where he was gunned down in front of shocked townspeople. Pacificador was later convicted of the murder.

February 25, 1986

Marcos fled the Philippines leaving behind a foreign debt of $27 billion and a bureaucracy gone mad. “Cash advances” for the elections from the national treasury amounted to Php3.12 billion ($150 million). The Central Bank printed millions of peso bills, many with the same serial number. Sixty million pesos in newly printed bills were found in a vehicle owned by Imelda’s brother Bejo in the Port Area of Manila, and another Php 100 million aboard the MV Legaspi also owned by Bejo Romualdez.
How massive and humongous a loot Marcos took can be deduced from the known losses he left behind.
The known losses he left at the Central Bank included $1.2 billion in missing reserves and $6 billion in the Special Accounts.
Imelda charged off most of her spending sprees to the PNB or Philippine National Bank which creatively wrote off her debts as “unresponded transfers”. Ver also used PNB funds to finance his “intelligence” operations.
The known losses at the PNB amounted to Php72.1 billion At the DBP, the losses Marcos left behind totaled Php85 billion; at the Philguarantee, it was Php6.2 billion ; and at the NIDC or National Investment and Development Corporation (NDC) – the losses amounted to Php 2.8 billion.
These losses were primarily due to cronyism – giving loans to cronies that had little or no collateral, whose corporations were undercapitalized, whose loan proceeds were not used for the avowed purpose, and where the practice of corporate layering was common, i.e. using two or more companies with the same incorporators and officers, whereby one company which gives the loan owns the company which obtains the loan, or similar arrangements. The cronies enjoyed their closeness to Marcos. With him they formed a Grand Coalition. They participated in the exercise of dictatorship. But Marcos owned them. The wealth of the cronies belonged to him.
Because of the free rides taken by Imelda, Marcos and the cronies, the Philippine Airlines was in debt by $13.8 billion.
The conservative Grand Total for losses Marcos left behind (and therefore the kind of loot he grabbed and hid) amounted to $17.1 billion.
The Central Bank, the PNB, and other financial institutions badly need an audit. The special review (not regular audit because there seems not to have been any – there are no records anyway) did not uncover Imelda’s spending – her name never appeared – and Ver’s intelligence fund.
The review gave no hint of theft or missing money, only “downward adjustments” and “proposed adjustments” to “deficiencies” and “shortages of money”
.
February 26, 1986

A few hours after the Marcos party landed in Honolulu , their luggage arrived – 300 crates on board a C-141 cargo jet. It took twenty-five customs officers five hours to tag the bags and identify the contents. The process was videotaped because of all the money and jewelry found inside.
There were 278 crates of jewelry and art worth an estimated US$5 million. Twenty-two crates contained more than Php27.7 million in newly minted currency, mostly hundred-peso denominations worth approximately US$1,270,000. 00 (It was illegal for anyone to depart the Philippines carrying more than Php500 in cash. )
There were other certificates of deposit from Philippine banks worth about US$1 million, five handguns, 154 videotapes, seventeen cassette tapes, and 2,068 pages of documents – all of which were impounded by Customs. The Marcos party was allowed to keep only US$300,000.00 in gold and $150,000.00 in bearer bonds that they brought in with their personal luggage because they declared them and broke no US customs laws.
There were 24 one-kilo gold bars fitted into a $17,000 hand-tooled Gucci briefcase with a solid gold buckle and a plaque on it that read, “To Ferdinand Marcos, from Imelda, on the Occasion of our 24th Wedding Anniversary. “

February 1986
When Marcos departed the Philippines , the losses in the three Central Bank accounts surpassed Php 122 billion (more than $6 billion). The big bulk of losses was attributed to the RIR account mainly due to two items: forward cover and swap contracts. Forward cover referred to foreign exchange provided by the CB at a fixed exchange rate to importers of essential commodities. Swap contracts referred to CB’s receiving foreign exchange from banks in exchange for pesos at the prevailing rate with a promise to deliver the foreign exchange back to them at an agreed future date.
There was no mention of losses due to CB transactions in gold or foreign exchange.

February 28, 1986

On this day, Jim Burke, security expert from the US Embassy, was tapping on the wooden paneling in Imelda’s abandoned Malacanang bedroom when he heard a hollow sound. It was the walk-in vault. Inside were thirty-five suitcases secured with locks and tape. They contained a treasure trove of documents about Swiss bank accounts, New York real estate, foundations in Vaduz , and some notepaper on which Marcos had practiced his William Saunders signature. They also contained jewelry valued at some US$10.5 million.
March 16, 1986

Did Marcos steal any gold from the CB? The CB always refused to comment. Why?

Today the LA Times reported that 6.325 metric tons of gold was unaccounted for in the Central Bank. Between 1978, the year Marcos ordered all gold producers to sell only to the CB, and end 1984, the Bureau of Mines reported that 124,234 pounds of gold were refined.

But the CB reported receiving only 110,319 pounds during this same period. That left a difference of 13,915 pounds (6.325 metric tons).

March 1986

Jokingly referring to themselves as the Office of National Revenge, a vigilante team led by Charlie Avila and Linggoy Alcuaz received a tip in the morning that Marcos’ daughter Imee had kept a private office in the suburb of Mandaluyong at 82 Edsa. They obtained a search warrant, then rushed to Camp Crame to pick up some soldiers. After devising a plan, they boarded four cars and drove to the premises, arriving around midnight. The soldiers scaled a fence and sealed off the area.
Avila , Alcuaz, and their men moved in and found documents in cardboard boxes, desks, and filing cabinets. Gunfire could be heard outside but it didn’t deter the search. The documents revealed the names of offshore companies and overseas investments of Marcos and his cronies – a late link in the paper trail that had been started abroad by the teams of Avila , Steve Psinakis, Sonny Alvarez, Raul Daza, Boni Gillego, and Raul Manglapus.

March 09, 1986
A Greek-American, Demetrios Roumeliotes, was stopped at the Manila International Airport before he could leave with eight large envelopes stuffed with jewelry that he admitted belonged to Imelda – valued at US$4.7 million.

March 15, 1986

Ernie Maceda, Minister of Natural Resources, revealed today that some 7 to 14 tons of Philippine gold are sold to the Binondo Central Bank annually and then smuggled to Sabah , Malaysia – this gold being part of some 20 tons produced by 200,000 panners all over the country. Maceda’s query was whether part of the gold they produced was siphoned to the “invisible gold hoard of Ms. Imelda R. Marcos.”
“We deliver to the Central Bank,” the miners said. “If it happened (the siphoning), it happened in the Central Bank.”
Is it true that Marcos propagated the Yamashita myth to hide the fact that he looted the Central Bank, that its gold bars were melted down and recast in odd-size bars to make them look old (how does gold look old, anyway?).

Marcos claimed that he “received the surrender of Gen. Yamashita” after a battle with his guerrilla outfit. History has recorded that Yamashita surrendered to Lt. Co. Aubrey Smith Kenworthy and that there was no battle. Yamashita’s peaceful surrender had been arranged at least two weeks before the event.

In one entry in Marcos’ diary he noted, “I often wonder what I will be remembered for in history. Scholar? Military hero…?” In a supreme irony, he did achieve what he so vainly sought – lasting fame – but not in the way he envisioned:

The largest human rights case in history – 10,000 victims.
Guinness Book of Records – the world’s greatest thief.
The largest monetary award in history – $22 billion..

September 30, 1986

Questioned by Philippine and US lawyers about his hidden wealth, Marcos took the Fifth Amendment 197 times. Imelda followed suit – 200 times.
December 1989
An American jury found the Marcos estate liable for $15 million in the killing of anti-Marcos activists Gene Viernes and Silme Domingo. Manglapus, Psinakis, Gillego and other erstwhile exile oppositionists testified at the trial.

November 04, 1991

Today, a Sunday, the circus came to town. The Swiss Federal Tribunal had ruled the year before that the Philippine government must comply with the European Convention o Human Rights, especially due process. There had to be a lawsuit filed within one year. Thus, the solicitor general’s office filed all sorts of cases against Imelda and the government had to allow her to return to answer the charges.

“I come home penniless,” she tearfully said on arrival. She then repaired to her suite at the Philippine Plaza Hotel which cost $2,000 a day and rented sixty rooms for her entourage – American lawyers, American security guards and American PR firms.
December 1991

The Central Bank had accumulated losses of Php324 billion in the Special Accounts.

November 30, 1992
The Central Bank; losses were Php561 billion and climbing. Cuisia asked that the CB be restructured. Sen. Romulo asked to see the 1983 audit of the international reserves. He couldn’t get a copy. It was “restricted” .

January 05, 1993

Imelda didn’t show up for the scheduled signing of a new PCGG agreement. She kept vacillating on the terms and conditions – demanding she be allowed to travel abroad for thirty-three days to confer with bank officials in Switzerland , Austria , Hong Kong and Morocco to work out the transfer of the frozen funds.
Actually she was hoping a guy she had authorized, J..T.Calderon, would be able to move the funds just as the order was lifted, before the government had a chance to transfer them to Manila . When the government discovered the authority, all negotiations with Imelda were halted and her requests for travel suspended.
August 10, 1993

Georges Philippe, a Swiss lawyer of Imelda, wrote today a confidential letter to the Marcoses’ old Swiss lawyer, Bruno de Preux, who handled almost all of the Marcos family’s hidden accounts in Switzerland . Philippe requested de Preux for the status of:
A $750 million account with United Mizrahi Bank in Zurich ;
Various currency and gold deposits at the Union Bank of Switzerland , at Kloten airport and at Credit Suisse;
A $356 million account (now in escrow and worth almost $600 million) which was being claimed by the PCGG.

1994

The human rights jury awarded the victims $1.2 billion in exemplary damages, then $766.4 million in compensatory damages a year after that, for a total of $1.964 billion. Two days after, another $7.3 million was awarded to twenty-one Filipinos in a separate lawsuit.

1995

The US Supreme Court upheld the $1.2 billion judgment.
March 29, 1995

The Swiss Parliament passed a law (an amendment to a previous act) that removed the need for a final judgment of criminal conviction of the accused (such as the Marcoses) in the case of criminally acquired assets which could now therefore be returned to claimants (such as the Philippine government) by Swiss court order.

July 1996
In part because of the torture of Roger Roxas, $22 billion was awarded to his Golden Budha Corporation.

December 10, 1997

The Swiss Supreme Court promulgated a landmark decision that took into account the March 1995 Swiss Parliament act and the fact that new criminal cases had been filed against Imelda Marcos. The court held that there was no need for any criminal proceeding; that a civil or administrative proceeding would suffice, and the Marcos Swiss deposits which had been “criminally acquired” can be returned to the Philippines in deference to the final judgment of the Philippine court as to the ownership of these deposits.
The Swiss court also announced that the interest and reputation of Switzerland was at stake if it would become a haven for money launderers laundering money obtained by crime. Therefore, in the case of the Marcos deposits, because “the illegal source of the assets in this case cannot be doubted” the Swiss court ordered that the money be returned to the Philippines to be held in escrow account in the PNB to await the judgment of the Sandiganbayan in the forfeiture case.
By the way, in January 17, 1975 a secret decree not made public until after the Edsa insurrection was signed by Marcos stating that in the event he became incapacitated or died, power would be turned over to Imelda. On June 7, 1975, in his own handwriting, Marcos amended the January 17thdecree and clarified imelda’s role as chairperson of committee with presidential powers.
In February 1979, Imelda was named chairman of the cabinet committee, composed of all ministries, to launch the BLISS (Bagong Lipunan Sites and Services) program, an ambitious attempt to centralize control of all economic and social development. She assumed responsibility for the “11 needs of Man” codified in her ministry’s mufti-year Human Settlements Plan, 1978-2000. By 1986, the number of Filipinos living below the poverty line doubled from 18 million in 1965 to 35 million. And the ecologic al balance of the country had degraded from 75 % to 27% forest cover remaining – with 39 million acres of forest falling victim to rampant logging. This was BLISS.
She was head of the Metro Manila Commission, which by year-end 1985 had managed to accumulate debts of Php 1.99 billion (which included $100 million in foreign loans) in its ten years of existence. Imelda had accomplished nothing and left the people embittered and even more disillusioned.

In September 1992 Marcos was found guilty of violating the human rights of 10,000 victims. The ruling occurred just after a judge found Imee Marcos-Manotoc guilty of the torture and murder of Archimedes Trajano, a 21 year old engineering student at Mapua who had the temerity to ask Imee after a speech she gave whether the Kabataang Barangay (a national youth group) “must be headed by the president’s daughter?”
Imee and brother Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos, Jr. have been active in the political scene.. Bongbong, who finished 3 terms as Ilocos Norte governor, is now running for Senator under Presidential bet, Manny Villar’s senatorial slate.. he’s been quoted as saying that if given a chance, he’d like to run for President one day…

May 25, 2010

Bongbong is now a Senator, Imelda is Governor of Ilocos Norte and Imee is in Congress.  The MARCOSES are back in full force thanks to our “despicable amnesia” as aptly described by the eminent writer, F. Sionil Jose.

 

Photo credit: US Army, public domain

Guest Writer

  • Lida adinad

    WOw, unbelievable. HOw can one enjoys all the luxury at the expense of the million of Filipinos in desperate poverty? All conciences was vanished by greed and more greed. I can’t believe the magnitude of their corruption, top notch talaga. Pero ganoon naman eh, when one has tasted power and luxury satisfaction gets more elusive and so more and more will never satiate the appetite of one who has sold his conscience to the devil. But everything has an end, kawawa naman sila sa bandang huli, pagdating ng hukom ng Dios. May panahon pa para magsisisi and that will be seen if the remaining members of the family have the guts to return all their kayamanan to the Filipino people.

    • UP nn grad

      Don’t forget the value of last-minute conversions as told in the story with three persons on the cross — two thieves.

  • alexbee

    lahat talaga temporary. kita nyo kahit gaano katagal tayong namuhay sa dilim, at dilim din yung sumunod, at least ang pinoy laging umaasa na may mangyayari in the near future na pagbabagong tunay. mamamatay din sila, mas mapalad ang mahihirap hindi nababahiran ng kurapsyon, at mananatili na mas malapit sa kanila ang Diyos. Sa langit dun tayong mga naapi, pangwalang-hanggan. Sila magsisisi pero huli na. Linisin natin ang ating buhay, at sa Diyos manalig, ito yung best, ito yung mas matagal na tunay na pag-asa, pangwalang-hanggan. Sa mga corrupt, sorry na lang kayo, ang pagganti ay sa Diyos.

  • Nicole

    Ferdinand Marcos was a good leader..

    • Jonard

      this is a joke right? or perhaps you’re stupid

  • erwin

    do not forget the past but learn from it. Society and the Philippines as a whole will not be where if it weren’t for the corruption and greed of one family. Unless we understand and remember the past, we will always repeat the mistakes we had. If you tolerate corruption then I hope you feel and endure the result. “I pity the fool.”- Mr. T.

    • Bert

      “More foolish are those who indulged in selective memory”-Mr. Me

    • Bert

      “Thrashing the alive is more honorable than thrashing the dead.”-Mr. Me

    • Bert

      I pity the fool who remembers the bad but forgot the worst.”-Mr. Me

  • Gene Chap-as

    Are all these facts? Para namang wala nagawa mabuti si President Ferdinand Marcos the way mag present ang writer ng so called chronology na ito. Mukha malaki galit kay Apo Marcos kaya masyado biased or nagdidilim lang ang kaisipan kaya kailangan mag verify muna. Sana lang, maging parehas lang sa mga facts para hindi mabulag sa katotohanan ang mga kabataang makakabasa ng chronology na ito. Masyado na idinidiin lahat ng sisi kay Ferdie. Maging siguro mga kasalanan ng writer ng chronology na ito eh sa matandang Presidente na isinisi.

  • UP nn grad

    Bongbong when he becomes president would most likely act on responsibility of son to honor the name of his father by having a Truth Commission about the martial law years, document Ferdinand Marcos years during the World War II against the Japanese, and especially the still unanswered question about the mastermind to the murder of Ninoy Aquino.

  • Bert

    Apparently there are still some few people who enjoy bashing the dead.

  • marban

    i dont know what is the real motive of the guest writer…..it’s been 25 yrs since Marcoses are force out of power…there’s already 5 Presidents including P-noy…..PHP 100 + trillion spent for the past 25 yrs…..a new breed of generation was born and yet still blame to the Marcoses for the country’s failure….PHP 4.4 Trillion for 22 yrs of Marcos rule compare to PHP 100 + Trillion of “pro democracy leaders kuno”…despite this big amount of monies spent by “pro democracy leaders kuno” but still majority of our population lives below poverty line and foreign debt increases to 100 times. Philippines was already overtaken by our asian neighbors…filipinos better wake up….don’t believe this people who always blames the past…

    • Alfredo

      His/her motive is simple they are destroying Bongbong 🙂 they are afraid in him cause Marcos is back again. Marcos is bad but how about Erap and Gloria? Let say Cory has a good record no corruption involve and hope for noynoy will continue what he has started. walang bansa sa mundo ang walang utang na bilyon dollars ngayon kahit US and Japan bilyones ang utang 🙂 Forget the past think for our future.

  • frank

    @Nieves….tama ka…and I would like to say..Is marcos that bad compared to the presidents who succeeded him?….lest we forget that a president who always campaign for the poor was worst and the lady who came after him was the same….Its time for the filipinos to take responsibility and fight corruption by not taking the handouts that politicians dole out to the poor and start questioning everything including the press which sometimes are more corrupt than the politicians themselves.

  • manolo

    i agree with the author, it was Marcos who started the corruption in the philippines, it was marcos who has so many human rights violations, it was marcos who has an ill gotten wealth, it was marcos who controlled everything, but there’s only one question that i am asking ever since marcos was gone, now that he is not in power , who are we gonna blame for all the corruption that is happening in the gov’t either from the AFP or the civil servants,, who are we gonna blame for all the human rights violation being committed, who are we gonna blame for the unexplained wealth of the politician we trusted and voted, who is in control now. will someone answer please, Before i could only blame Marcos, Marcos, and Marcos, but now I don’t know who to blame.

  • jennifer

    @alfredo pala…sori po sa mispelled.

  • jennifer

    @welfredo..tama po kayo jan sa sinabi nio.

  • andy

    kung pinakain mo anak mo ng nanggaling sa nakaw magnanakaw din yan. “Di bubunga ng mangga ang mabulo” Si marcos at pamilya nya ang nagsimula ng corruption o pangungurakot sa ating bansa.

    • Alfredo

      paano kung tatay mo ninakaw nya yong pinang patapos nya sayo andy? dimo nman alam yon kung saan kinuha ng tatay mo ang perang pinang patapos nya sayo nong nag aaral ka di naman sasabihin ng tatay mo kung saan galing yon kung masama galing basta ang gusto ng tatay mo mapatapos ka 🙂

  • Alfredo

    My Dear guest writter,

    Forget the past and think for the future bong bong will be a good leader, what his father did in the past he was not aware my dear and not bongbong decision, for example ang tatay mo kung nasa gobyerno dati at nagnanakaw pero dimo alam at yong pinang patapos nya sayo may magagawa kaba, wala diba? sana hindi karin ganun kasi dimo naman alam ang ginagawa ng tatay mo dati kaya ang tamang gawin mo nalang ituwid munalang yong mali na nagawa nya at maging isang magandang good leader kana in the future if you have a chance to be the leader 🙂

    • UP nn grad

      F Sionil Jose, last year, wrote Noynoy to get closure to “… who was mastermind for Ninoy murder”. Kapag naging presidente si Bongbong, that may be when Pilipinas pushes for Truth Commission.

  • Alfredo

    Maybe Late Macoy did a lot a of mistake but Bongbong will be different. look what he did in Ilocos Norte he can be a good leader in the future. One example Gloria, his father is a great president but what gloria did to our country when she became the president its the other way around that his father did and i belive Bogbong will be a good president in the future, if macoy did a lot of mistake and he will learn from that and besides we are in new era.

    • Jonard

      do you expect a pig to give birth to a monkey? they are the same otherwise he should have the conscience to return the ill-gotten wealth that his family is enjoying now….

  • nieves

    you can not blame the lowly filipinos to get sick of amnesia because even if marcoses got almost all the wealth in the philippine lands , the predecessors are still alive. so alive… at nagpaubaya na lang mga pinoy sa Lord kung kailan ang mga alipores tutugisin.

  • nieves

    you can not blame the lowly filipinos to get sick of amnesia because even if marcoses got almost all the wealth in the philippine lands , the predecessors are still alive. so alive… at nagpaubaya na lang mga pinoy sa Lord kung kailan ang mga alipores
    tutugisin.

  • ROWENA CAO

    this is very informative report though it didn’t change my points of few about them… coz I like the Marcoses..